ҧݧ֧ާ ڧܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ

 

   ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ֧ߧ ݧߧԧ ֧ۧѧ ӧ ӧ֧ ާڧ, ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ ާߧا֧ӧ ֧է ֧ԧ ڧѧ֧ݧ֧. ߧ էڧӧڧ֧ݧߧ, ѧ ܧѧ ֧֧٧ߧ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ܧѧۧߧ ާѧݧ. ا ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ, ܧ է ڧ ӧݧݧڧ ֧ѧ, ѧ ӧ֧ԧ էԧӧݧ֧ߧ ݧէާ, ߧ ٧ߧѧܧާާ ާ֧էݧԧڧ֧ ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ާ ا ާߧԧڧ ڧ ߧڧ էӧ֧ا֧ߧ ֧֧٧ߧާ ӧݧڧߧڧ ӧ֧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اߧ ާ ڧݧ ڧߧާ ڧݧ ԧ ڧܧӧ. ѧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ҧ֧֧է ѧӧ ӧ֧էڧ ڧڧ ҧݧѧ , էڧ֧ܧ ԧݧѧӧߧԧ ѧڧӧ ֧ܧڧߧܧ ѧܧѧէ֧ާڧ ֧ ѧ , էߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ, ֧ԧ ҧݧ, ӧܧݧѧէ ڧݧ ѧߧڧ ӧߧ֧ݧ ֧ӧ ݧڧ٧ѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ѧܧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ܧѧ ѧ ѧ ֧ԧ էӧڧاߧڧܧ.

ѧ֧ اѧ ѧߧ

  ާ֧ ߧ ܧѧ ֧ߧ ߧ֧ҧݧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ, ڧߧڧܧ, ݧѧԧѧ ѧ ݧܧ ߧ էԧѧէܧ, ߧ ٧էѧݧ ֧ݧ ߧ էӧ֧اէ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧާ ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ , ܧ, էߧѧܧ, ѧѧߧڧݧڧ ߧ ݧܧ ڧѧ, ߧ ٧ ֧ԧ ֧է֧ݧѧާ. ݧӧѧ ѧ , ߧѧѧݧ ӧ֧ާ ֧֧٧ߧԧ էէ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ҧݧ֧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ , ֧֧ާ ӧ֧ԧ, ҧݧ է֧ݧѧߧ ѧߧ. ߧ֧ߧ ا, ֧ӧ ֧֧է, ܧѧѧ֧ ڧܧ ѧѧߧڧӧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ާ ާڧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ.

   ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ѧݧ ӧ֧ڧ, ӧ֧, ߧ ѧ էѧӧߧ - ֧ 20-30 ԧէѧ ߧѧ֧ԧ ݧ֧ڧ ֧էڧߧӧ ӧ ާߧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧ ԧѧ٧է ҧݧ. ѧݧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ ߧ ާ֧اէ ѧڧѧѧާ ܧ, ާ֧اէ ڧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧާ, ߧѧѧӧڧާ ҧҧ ٧ ֧ ӧݧڧߧڧ. ҧѧ٧ӧѧݧڧ էӧ ݧѧԧ֧, էߧ - ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧݧ ߧ, էԧ - ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ӧ֧ ѧݧߧ ڧݧ֧ ԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. էѧߧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧӧڧ ֧ݧ ֧էڧߧ ܧ ݧܧ ֧էӧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧߧѧݧڧ ڧާ֧ڧ ߧѧ֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ѧܧ. ѧ֧ާ ֧էѧӧڧ էӧէ , էѧӧѧ ڧѧ֧ݧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ѧާާ ֧ߧڧ ڧ ҧ֧էڧ֧ݧߧ. ߧӧߧ ӧ ҧݧܧ ѧ٧է - ܧާ ا է֧ۧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اڧ ѧӧӧ ٧էѧߧڧ ݧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧԧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ ֧ߧ ֧ڧڧߧ ҧ֧ӧ ֧ߧڧܧ? ާ, ܧѧ ߧ ߧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ѧ, ާاߧ ֧է֧ݧڧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اߧ ҧ֧֧էߧڧܧ ާ, ڧݧ ڧߧާ ݧѧԧ֧. ѧߧ֧ ߧѧ ҧ٧ ӧ֧ڧ, ԧݧѧߧ ܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧݧ ߧ - ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ է֧ӧߧڧ. ާ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ڧ ߧ ا֧ߧڧ էݧԧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ݧ ٧էѧߧڧ ڧѧݧѧ ڧڧѧݧߧ.

֧ڧ ߧߧڧܧ ٧էѧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ

ѧ֧ ѧߧ

  , ܧ ڧ٧ѧ֧ ڧݧ ߧ, ߧӧӧѧ ߧ ӧ֧ڧ ѧ ѧ ڧߧ, ߧѧѧӧ֧ ާڧӧѧ ߧѧѧݧ 30- ԧէ ߧѧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ܧ. ߧ ѧܧѧا ӧѧ ڧާ֧ߧ ݧ֧է֧. ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧݧ ߧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ է֧ӧߧڧ ҧ֧֧ ӧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧڧߧڧ ߧѧߧ, է֧֧ӧߧ ߧ٧ԧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧԧ ާѧ֧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ (1600-1680), اڧӧ֧ԧ ѧ ܧߧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧ - ߧѧѧݧ ڧ. ߧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧܧ ֧ԧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ڧڧ ѧާԧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ ҧߧ ݧѧ ߧ ݧ֧էڧ ڧߧڧܧ: "֧ާ֧ۧߧ ߧڧܧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ" (ߧ ٧ ), "ڧܧ-ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧѧߧڧ ֧٧է ߧߧ" (ߧߧ ߧا) "ҧߧڧ ֧֧ اߧا" (ا ا ӧߧߧ ٧), "ڧߧܧ ܧާާ֧ߧѧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ" (ߧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ) "֧ߧ֧ѧݧԧڧ֧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ"

  (ߧ ٧ ) ߧ ڧߧ,"336 էݧӧߧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ" (ѧߧ ѧߧ ݧ ѧߧ ), էӧ ѧܧѧ, ڧڧӧѧ֧ާ ѧާާ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ "ҧѧߧڧ ֧ڧѧڧӧ ڧ "ѧܧѧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ" (ѧߧ ٧ڧ ٧ ԧ) "ܧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ էݧڧߧߧ ܧܧ [اڧ]" (ѧ-էѧߧ ٧), էӧ ѧܧѧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ "اէ֧ߧڧ է֧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ" (ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ է ݧߧ) "֧֧ߧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ҧ" ( ߧ). ާ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ڧߧڧܧ, ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧԧ է ڧڧ֧ܧڧާ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧѧާ ӧݧ ѧڧߧߧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ߧڧ, ֧էާ֧, ߧѧէԧҧߧ ֧ݧ. ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, է֧اѧڧ֧ ӧ ӧ֧ ڧ ڧߧڧܧѧ, ӧ֧ާ ӧߧ, էܧѧ֧ ѧާ ѧ٧ߧ ڧ ݧܧӧѧߧڧ. ѧڧߧڧܧ ߧܧ ӧ֧ڧ ҧ٧ѧ֧ݧߧ ާߧ, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ܧӧէӧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ӧ֧ݧѧ ֧ߧѧ ҧҧ ҧѧߧէѧާ ѧ٧ҧۧߧڧܧ ߧѧߧ ѧߧէߧ, ߧѧӧէߧڧӧڧާ ӧڧߧڧ. ݧѧӧڧ ߧ "֧ڧ ֧ާ֧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ" ҧѧ, ߧѧѧ ҧҧ էѧا ӧڧ ҧӧڧ էԧ ٧ڧ֧, ӧڧӧڧ ߧ ߧ ާ֧ߧ ާ֧ڧܧ, ҧӧڧ ڧ ߧ֧ڧݧߧ ߧѧݧԧ ڧߧܧԧ էӧ. ܧާѧߧէڧ է ٧ڧ - ٧ , ߧ ѧߧڧ ѧ٧ڧݧ ӧէ ݧѧԧ֧ ӧѧӧڧ , ߧ ӧէ֧اѧ ҧ, ҧ֧اѧ ѧܧ ܧ, ֧ԧ ߧ֧ӧ٧ާاߧ ҧݧ էԧߧѧ ߧ ݧѧէ. ݧ֧էӧڧ, ٧ڧ էѧݧ ߧ ާڧݧ ٧ѧӧѧڧӧ֧ ӧݧѧ ѧߧ ާѧߧاܧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧ ҧ ܧѧ٧ߧ֧ ӧ֧ ӧ֧ ֧ާ֧, ٧ ֧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ѧ ֧ԧ ֧ߧڧܧ. ڧߧܧ, ѧߧڧӧ֧ާ ֧ާ ߧ֧, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ է ا اڧݧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ. ӧ֧ ا ߧ ܧݧߧ ݧ֧, էѧݧڧӧڧ է֧, ߧ ѧߧڧ ӧҧէߧ ӧѧܧ ٧֧ާݧ ֧ߧڧ էѧܧԧ ѧݧڧާڧ֧ܧԧ ѧܧѧ "ѧߧڧ ٧ڧ" ӧ֧ާ ٧էѧ ҧ ӧڧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ( ֧֧էڧߧ .), "ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ".

   ߧѧݧ֧էڧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ӧܧݧѧ֧ ҧڧݧڧ ѧާ ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ߧ ֧ߧڧ ҧ, ڧ ܧ ҧݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ էڧߧߧ ѧߧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ. ҧߧ ֧֧ڧݧ ݧ֧էڧ: ܧާݧ֧ܧ ѧۧ٧ ( ѧۧ٧ ݧ ), էڧ - "ӧ٧ӧߧ էѧ" ( ѧ ), 108 "էݧڧߧߧԧ ܧݧѧܧ", ( 108 ѧߧѧߧ ), ܧާݧ֧ܧ ާ֧- էѧ , ާ֧- ٧ߧ , ܧ֧- , ѧݧܧ- ԧߧ , ާ֧ѧݧݧڧ֧ܧڧ ا֧٧ݧ- ٧ߧ , ܧܧ- ԧ , - , ѧݧܧ ֧ӧڧէߧ ݧ֧٧ӧڧ֧- ݧߧ , ֧٧ҧ֧- , ڧܧ ܧԧާ- ҧ . ާ ԧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧ ѧܧا ѧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ ѧڧߧԧ "ܧݧ֧ۧܧ ܧ" ( اѧߧ ), "ӧ֧ާ [ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ] ֧" ( ҧ ԧѧߧ ), "ҧ ܧߧ ֧" ( ԧѧߧѧ էۧէ ). ߧߧڧܧ էѧߧߧ ӧ֧ڧ ڧڧӧѧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ٧էѧߧڧ ѧܧԧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ӧڧէ ֧ߧڧӧܧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ڧݧ, ܧѧ "ݧܧѧߧڧ ܧѧާ" ( ۧ ). ߧӧѧߧڧ֧ էݧ ԧ ڧ ݧاڧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ֧ѧߧڧ ڧ֧ԧݧڧ (ا - ӧ, ܧѧاէ) (ܧѧ - ڧѧ), ܧ ѧܧ֧ ܧѧ "ڧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ է էԧ ֧էݧ֧" ߧѧݧڧڧ ֧ߧڧܧ "ܧݧ֧ۧܧԧ ܧ", ѧ ܧѧ էߧ ڧ ߧӧߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ֧ ҧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ӧݧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ "ڧݧڧѧߧڧ-ӧէ" ( ٧-ߧߧ ). ѧاߧ֧֧ۧ ݧڧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧ էѧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ ڧݧ ߧ ӧݧ֧ ڧߧڧ "ڧѧݧ֧ӧڧէߧԧ ѧܧڧӧѧߧڧ" ( ѧߧ ) ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ڧݧ- ٧ڧߧ . ڧߧڧ ӧѧҧѧ ߧ ҧѧ٧ ֧ߧڧܧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ܧ ѧݧܧ, ܧ ݧاڧݧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ߧӧ ӧ֧ԧ ӧڧߧܧԧ ڧܧӧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧݧ ٧ڧԧѧߧ. ڧާ֧ߧߧ ֧ԧ ѧܧѧ ѧ֧ݧߧ ڧ٧ѧ ߧ ѧߧڧ, ٧էѧӧѧ ӧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ, ݧӧڧߧ էݧ ܧ ѧܧا ѧӧݧݧ ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ "էݧڧߧߧ" ӧڧէ اڧ. "ڧݧ ڧѧݧ֧ӧڧէߧԧ ܧ֧ߧڧ" ( ѧߧ٧ڧߧ ) ߧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ ѧݧߧ ڧݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ֧ߧڧܧ, ӧڧէڧާ, ߧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ڧ֧ާ ٧ڧԧѧߧ ߧӧߧ ڧݧ٧֧ ާ֧էڧܧ "ҧݧڧاߧ֧ԧ ҧ" ( էѧߧէ ) ާѧݧ ѧާݧڧէ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ( ٧ ), ݧڧڧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ߧܧڧ "ڧܧ ѧާݧڧէߧ" ( է ٧ ). ڧߧڧѧާ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ֧էڧߧާ էݧ ӧ֧ ܧ էѧߧߧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ , ܧߧ֧ߧ ا, էݧ ڧݧ ߧ ӧݧ: "ާԧܧ ֧էݧ֧ӧѧ ا֧ܧ", "էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ܧԧݧ ҧ֧ ѧ٧ӧ", "ܧ֧ ֧էݧ֧ӧѧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ", " ܧ ӧاڧէѧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ [ڧӧߧڧܧ]", "٧ا ӧ֧ѧ - ѧߧ էڧԧѧ", "ާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧݧڧӧѧ ҧ", "ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ڧݧ", "ާѧݧ ܧߧݧڧӧѧ ҧݧ", "֧ާ ݧߧѧާ էӧڧԧѧ ٧ڧߧ֧ ", "ӧߧاէѧ ڧӧߧڧܧ ӧѧݧڧӧѧ ", "ӧէ ܧߧѧܧ ڧݧڧѧ ߧ֧ӧߧ ݧ֧էӧѧ" .. ѧ٧ ӧ֧ ֧ߧڧܧ ӧݧ ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ "ڧߧѧէѧ ٧ڧڧߧߧ ߧ" ( ڧѧߧ ), ӧܧݧѧڧ ֧ҧ "ӧ֧ާ ҧ" ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ڧݧ- ٧ڧߧ ( ҧ ) " է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ" ( ҧ ).

   ֧ާ ߧ , "ڧܧӧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ֧֧էѧӧѧݧ ڧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ",

ѧ֧ ѧߧ

   ҧݧѧ ѧ ֧ԧ ߧѧݧ֧էڧ ҧݧ ѧ֧ߧ, ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ӧ֧ է ߧ֧ ѧܧ ݧڧߧ, ܧѧ ߧ ѧߧڧ (1771-1853), ѧ֧ߧѧݧ ܧݧѧߧ ѧݧڧ ݧܧ էڧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ѧۧ٧ (ܧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ "֧ӧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ" ( ݧ )) ܧާݧ֧ܧ " ѧ " (ܧ ݧڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ "ӧԧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ" ( ݧ )). ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ҧݧ اէ֧ߧ ԧѧ ҧ ݧ , ҧ ڧܧӧ ܧݧѧߧ ѧѧߧڧݧ էѧݧ֧ܧ ٧ ֧ԧ ֧է֧ݧѧާ. էѧߧߧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ӧ֧ڧ, ܧݧѧ ߧ֧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ҧѧѧܧ ݧѧۧߧ ѧ ߧ֧ܧڧ ԧݧڧܧ ѧߧ, ܧ, ֧ާ ڧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ ܧݧѧߧ, ѧۧߧ էԧݧէӧѧ ٧ ֧ߧڧӧܧѧާ, էڧߧ֧ӧ ѧҧѧӧѧ ӧڧէ֧ߧߧ. ڧ ٧ѧߧڧ֧ ֧ԧ էߧѧاէ ӧ֧֧ ٧ѧѧ ѧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ѧߧڧ.

   ѧߧ ֧ߧ ӧ ӧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧݧ, ߧ ѧߧڧ, ڧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, է֧ݧѧ ֧ԧ ӧڧ ֧ߧڧܧ. ڧӧڧ, ݧ ҧ֧էߧ ҧѧѧ ѧߧ ѧէѧ֧, ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ֧, ݧڧ. ݧ ާߧا֧ӧ ֧էڧߧܧ ѧާާ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧާ ާѧ֧ѧާ, ݧѧ֧ ٧ӧڧ ", ߧ ڧާ֧ڧ ڧӧߧڧܧ" ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ֧էѧӧѧߧڧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ էӧ. ѧ ܧѧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ٧ߧѧ ҧݧ ڧݧߧ ڧ٧ߧ֧ا֧ߧ ާݧݧ ݧܧ ӧ֧ ٧էӧ, ڧ ҧݧ էߧ ӧݧߧ "ӧ٧ӧߧ" ֧ߧڧܧ, اܧ էܧܧ. ڧڧߧ ѧߧ ӧڧէڧ٧ާ֧ߧڧ ާߧԧڧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ, ڧ ڧ ڧէѧ ڧ ҧݧ֧ ٧էӧڧ֧ݧߧ, ߧ֧ا֧ݧ ҧ֧ӧ ާ, ڧ-٧ ֧ԧ ߧ֧ԧѧާߧ ާ֧ߧݧڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ , ѧ ҧݧ֧ "էѧܧڧާ" ާݧ. ԧ ܧѧ ҧ ߧѧѧݧ, էѧҧѧߧߧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ӧߧܧ ѧߧ - ߧ, ٧էӧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧݧ ܧݧѧߧ . ѧ ا ѧߧ ֧ԧ ߧӧ էݧاѧݧ ѧۧܧ ѧܧڧܧӧѧ " ѧ " ֧ާ ߧ. ާ ԧ, ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ֧٧էڧ ڧ ֧ߧڧܧ ֧ߧڧӧѧӧڧۧ ѧߧ ֧ ߧѧߧ ߧ֧ܧ ۧ, ҧէ֧ - ߧӧѧ֧ݧ ڧݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. էߧѧܧ, ڧڧߧ ԧݧҧܧ ѧ, ߧ ѧߧڧ ا ߧ ާ ֧ԧ ڧ, ާ ڧݧ ѧӧڧ ֧ԧ էӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ߧ ڧߧڧߧ(1795-1868) ֧ݧ اѧҧѧ, ԧէ ֧ էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ܧ ҧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ٧ѧ ѧ "ߧӧ ӧ֧ӧ" ( ڧߧ ٧ ) ڧݧ ߧ, ܧѧ ҧ֧֧ ӧ ߧѧѧݧ ѧܧԧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ, ܧѧ ߧ ҧߧ, ֧ ֧ ڧߧԧէ ٧ӧ "ߧӧѧ ӧ֧ӧ اѧҧѧ" ( اѧҧѧ ڧߧ ٧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ݧܧ, ԧէ اڧӧѧ ֧ԧ ݧ֧ާߧߧڧ ߧ ڧߧڧ. ا ӧ֧ӧ ܧѧ էӧ֧ߧߧ, ѧ "ܧݧѧߧ" ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧ ѧާ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ֧֧ڧ ڧݧ ߧ, ߧ ڧߧ (1849-1929), ߧѧڧѧӧڧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧ֧ܧ ѧҧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ӧ֧ާ ֧էѧӧѧ "ѧ ӧ֧ӧ" ( ݧѧ ٧ ) ֧էѧӧѧݧѧ ݧ ߧ ܧ֧-ߧڧҧէ ӧҧ է֧֧ӧߧ ߧ٧ԧ ܧާ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ, ֧ԧ ߧ ӧߧܧ, ݧ֧اڧӧѧ֧ ߧ ֧ܧ.

   էڧ ڧݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, էԧڧ ѧާڧݧߧ ڧ֧ԧݧڧ, ҧ ٧էѧ ٧ߧѧߧ֧ (1870-1942), ߧ ڧ֧ ѧߧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧ާ - ѧߧ (1834-1902), ܧ ѧܧا ڧݧ ѧߧ ֧ԧ ߧ ѧߧ (1837-1892) ( ѧߧ ڧݧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ѧ ٧ߧѧߧ). ֧ާ ߧ , ڧ٧ѧݧ ߧ է ݧاҧ ߧ "٧էӧڧ֧ݧߧ", "ҧ֧ӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ" - ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ "ާѧݧѧާݧڧէߧ" ( ) ڧݧ "ܧߧ" ( ܧѧ ) ާ, էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ( ڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ) ڧݧ , ܧѧ, ӧ֧, էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ۧߧ, ӧ ѧӧߧ ߧ ڧާ֧ ߧڧ֧ԧ ҧ֧ԧ ڧݧ֧ ߧ. ا ާاߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ѧާ ݧ֧էߧ֧ ڧݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ - ڧݧ ߧ, ٧էѧߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ާѧ֧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧ ڧߧ ҧѧԧѧاѧ , ߧ ѧߧ. ߧ ѧ ڧݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ާѧ֧ ѧ ۧاߧ (1849-1920) ݧڧߧڧ ۧߧ.

   ӧ, ߧѧܧߧ֧, 1928 ԧէ ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧ѧ ާ ߧ֧ ݧڧߧڧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ѧܧ (1887-1957), ܧ ܧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ٧էѧ ѧ "ҧ֧ӧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ߧ" ڧӧݧ֧ ӧ֧ާ ڧܧӧ ҧݧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ, ݧڧ ڧ٧ߧѧߧڧ ܧԧѧ ާѧ֧ . ѧڧҧݧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ֧ۧѧ ѧڧѧ ڧݧ ߧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ӧ ӧݧ ֧ߧڧܧѧާ ߧ ѧܧ. ӧܧѧ ӧ֧ڧ ߧߧڧܧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ܧѧ ٧էѧ֧ݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ߧ էӧݧߧ ֧ܧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧѧ. ާڧ ֧֧, ܧѧܧӧ ӧ֧ڧ ڧ ߧ֧ߧ, ߧ ӧ٧ӧѧڧ ڧܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧݧ֧ ߧ. ڧڧ ԧѧ٧է ҧݧ֧ էݧԧѧ ٧ѧѧߧߧѧ.

֧ڧ ߧߧڧܧ "էѧܧԧ" ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ

ѧ֧ ߧ

  ֧اէ ӧ֧ԧ ѧ٧ ӧݧӧѧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧާ ڧާ ӧԧ ֧ݧߧڧܧ -էѧ اѧ ѧߧߧ, ڧܧѧӧ֧ԧ ҧ֧ާ֧ڧ ԧѧ էѧߧѧߧ. ߧ ݧܧ ֧ԧ էߧԧ. ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ӧ֧ ѧݧߧ ڧݧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ӧէ֧ݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ݧڧߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧԧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ԧ ڧܧӧ. ѧڧҧݧ֧ ѧߧߧڧ ڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ݧ֧, ֧էѧӧѧӧڧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ҧ ߧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧ, ӧէ֧ ڧ ֧٧է ߧ ӧڧߧڧ ߧ. ݧѧߧ ާѧ֧ӧ , ӧ ֧֧է, ݧڧ ԧէڧߧ ѧߧ ߧ, ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ܧ ߧ ѧߧڧݧ. ا ܧѧѧ֧ ѧާԧ ڧߧ, ҧ ֧ѧݧߧ ֧ߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ݧڧߧ ֧ڧէ اߧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ էڧߧѧڧ (ѧߧ-ҧ ѧ), ӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ էڧߧѧڧ (502 - 557).

   ֧ݧӧ֧ ߧ ݧܧ ѧ ѧܧڧܧӧѧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ߧ ҧѧ ֧ާ ӧ֧ ܧާѧߧէߧ էӧ ѧ էڧߧ֧ߧߧ ֧ާ է ާ֧ߧ ѧާҧߧ. ӧ֧ާ ާ֧ا ٧ڧߧ, ܧԧէ ӧ ӧڧߧڧ ߧ ҧݧ اا֧ߧ էݧ, ݧܧ ֧٧ ߧ ѧӧѧݧ ߧ֧ߧ, ѧ ܧѧ ާ֧اߧڧܧ, ٧ߧѧ ӧѧ֧ۧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ ѧާߧڧ ҧۧ, ߧ ާ֧ݧ էѧا ҧݧڧ٧ܧ էۧ ߧ֧ާ.

  ݧ֧էӧڧ, ݧߧܧڧ ڧާ֧ѧ ѧߧ-է ߧѧ٧ߧѧڧ ڧߧ ߧѧѧݧߧڧܧ ӧ֧ԧ ܧԧ ا. ا֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ էڧߧѧڧ, ӧݧ է էڧߧѧڧ اߧѧ (1127-1279), ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ֧֧էѧӧѧݧ է ڧߧ, ܧ ߧ ڧݧ ֧ԧ ާܧ , ѧܧا ֧ߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧާ ӧ ӧ֧ ҧݧѧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ.

   ҧ ֧ܧѧߧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧ, ڧާ֧ ӧ ֧ߧ ֧֧ߧ ٧ڧߧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ܧߧ ڧߧӧߧڧ . ާ ԧ, ӧ اڧ٧ߧ ѧѧݧ ڧ ٧ѧܧߧ ӧ֧ҧڧ ѧߧާѧڧ-֧֧ާ֧. ѧէ "ѧߧߧ ֧֧ާ֧" ( ٧ڧ), ڧ ڧ٧ѧݧڧ ֧ ߧ ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧ "ѧߧڧݧڧ ֧֧ѧڧ ѧߧڧ֧" ( ٧ѧ) "֧֧ӧߧ ԧ" (ߧ ѧߧ).

   ڧ٧ާ֧ߧڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ߧ ٧ߧ (ާ֧ է֧ӧ ާѧݧ ߧ֧ҧ֧) , ڧѧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ڧ֧ާ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ݧܧ֧, էҧѧӧڧ է 15 ߧӧ ڧ֧ާ. ާڧާ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ݧܧڧ ާ "֧֧ާ֧", ڧ ߧѧڧѧߧ ֧ ҧߧڧ "է ֧ܧ ڧ" (ڧ ٧) "ߧڧԧ է֧ӧ ާѧݧ ߧ֧ҧ֧" ( ٧ ߧ ). ߧѧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ߧ էߧ ڧ ڧ ѧҧ ݧߧ ӧڧէ ߧ էݧ, էߧѧܧ ѧߧڧݧ ڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ 15 , ֧֧էѧӧѧӧڧ ڧ֧ݧ ڧߧ - ԧէڧߧ ѧߧ ߧ. ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ݧڧҧ ӧѧէѧ, ݧڧҧ ֧ܧ ܧ֧ߧէڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧާ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧݧ֧ , , ߧ, (.. "ߧ ߧܧԧ" ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ) (37 .27, 25 .261-262).

  ԧڧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ާѧ֧, ܧ ֧֧էѧӧѧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ, ڧѧ֧ էѧܧڧ ֧ߧ ѧߧڧ. ا֧ߧ֧ ֧ ا ѧާ ާ֧, ڧߧ, ѧߧڧ اڧ էڧߧѧڧ ѧ (618-907), էاڧ ҧާ֧ߧڧӧѧݧ ڧѧާ ӧ֧ݧڧܧڧ , ڧէڧӧڧ ߧѧӧ֧ѧ ֧ԧ ֧էڧߧ֧ߧߧ اڧݧڧ ԧѧ. ѧܧا էѧҧѧ ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ڧߧ, էӧ֧է ܧݧڧ֧ӧ է 37. ѧߧڧߧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ѧߧڧӧڧ է ߧѧڧ էߧ֧ ѧܧѧ ܧݧѧߧާ ڧܧӧ. ѧܧѧ ݧ֧էڧ - "֧ڧѧڧ ӧާ ڧ֧ԧݧڧ" ( ٧ ԧ), "ҧѧߧڧ ڧܧ֧ߧߧڧ اէ֧ߧڧ 37 ާѧ" (ѧߧ ڧߧ ݧߧ), "اէ֧ߧڧ ԧݧѧӧ֧ߧӧ֧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ݧߧ ֧ݧ 37 ާѧ" (ѧߧ ا ߧ է ݧߧ), "اէ֧ߧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ 16 ٧ӧ֧ߧ" ( ݧ ԧѧߧ ݧߧ), "֧ڧѧڧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ާѧ֧ӧ" ( ԧ). է֧اѧߧڧ ѧܧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ ߧ֧ާߧ֧ߧߧ ӧ٧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ѧاߧ֧ۧڧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ ԧ ӧݧ ӧ֧ӧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ٧է֧ ֧֧ڧݧ֧ߧߧ "ӧ֧ާ ӧڧէ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ڧݧ- ٧ڧߧ ", ߧ ܧ ҧѧ٧ڧ֧ ӧ ҧ֧ӧѧ ֧ߧڧܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ڧ֧ ا է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ߧ "֧ ާ" ( ا ) "֧ էڧѧԧߧѧݧߧ" ( ). ӧڧ , ߧاߧ ާ֧ "ߧڧާѧ ڧݧ" ( է ٧ڧߧ ). է֧ ا ӧ֧ӧ ӧݧ֧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧѧ ѧ٧ ڧ ֧֧ ڧ֧ԧݧڧ " اѧߧ, ߧߧ, ݧߧ, ", ٧ߧѧѧѧ "֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ڧݧڧѧߧڧ, ߧ֧ѧ٧ӧߧ ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ" ֧է֧ݧѧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧڧ ҧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ѧܧا ڧߧڧ "֧ާ ݧߧѧާ էӧڧߧ ٧ڧߧ֧ ". է֧ ا ԧӧڧ , ܧѧ էݧاߧ ֧ߧڧӧѧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ 37 - "֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ, ާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧֧ӧߧ, էҧߧ էݧԧާ ֧֧ߧڧ ҧݧ ֧ܧ", ާ ڧߧԧէ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ, ܧѧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ "ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ էݧԧڧ, ߧ֧ܧߧѧ֧ާ " ( ѧߧѧߧ ). ҧ ֧ݧ ܧܧ ѧܧѧ ѧߧڧߧ ӧ ڧ ߧӧߧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ާاߧ ӧ֧ڧ էݧӧߧ ֧֧ݧا֧ߧڧ ٧էߧڧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧܧѧѧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ѧ ٧ߧ էԧڧ. ڧܧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ 37 ѧܧا ѧߧڧݧڧ ӧӧ ߧ֧ާߧ֧ߧߧ էӧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧ էܧ ֧ԧէߧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ.

   ֧ ا ӧާ ӧڧէѧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ڧݧ- ٧ڧߧ , ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ҧݧ ֧ߧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ էԧԧ ާѧ֧ ѧߧܧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ - ٧ڧ-٧).

ѧ֧ ٧ߧѧߧ

  ߧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ "ާ֧է [ҧ] ߧ ߧӧ ڧߧڧ ߧ " ( ߧ ) ֧֧էѧӧѧݧ ֧֧ ֧ԧ ֧ߧڧܧ اߧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ڧߧ է. ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ݧڧѧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ާߧԧ ֧ߧڧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧܧ, էߧѧܧ ҧ ѧҧܧ ާѧ֧ӧ էڧߧѧܧӧ. էڧ ާѧ֧, ڧާ ܧԧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ է ֧, ܧ ڧߧڧާѧ ѧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ - ѧ-٧, ٧ӧڧ ٧ . ѧ-٧ է ӧ ڧ ا ӧڧߧڧ ߧ, ڧ էԧԧ, ߧ֧ا֧ݧ ڧߧ ѧߧڧ, ֧٧է. ڧ էڧߧѧڧ ѧ, ܧѧ ѧߧڧ ٧ڧ-٧, ا ֧էѧӧѧ 37 ܧݧѧߧ , ߧѧ٧ӧѧӧڧ ݧڧҧ ѧܧا ѧߧѧߧ , ݧڧҧ ߧߧѧߧ ( ާݧ ҧݧڧا ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ).

   ܧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ѧ-٧ ֧ݧڧݧ ԧѧ էѧߧѧߧ, ԧէ ӧ֧֧ݧ էѧݧ ڧا֧ߧڧ ֧ܧ֧ ҧ֧ާ֧ڧ, ܧ, ܧѧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ ߧڧܧ, ٧ӧݧڧݧ ֧ާ էاڧ ѧ է էڧߧѧڧ (960-1279). ߧ֧ܧ ڧߧڧܧѧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ԧէ էѧߧܧڧ ԧѧ ѧݧ ֧ӧѧ ڧݧݧ ҧ֧ާ֧ڧ ѧܧѧ ӧ֧ߧߧѧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧާ ݧڧߧ, ܧѧ اѧ ѧߧ. ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧ-٧, ѧߧڧߧ ڧ ڧ֧ާ ڧ٧ݧا֧ߧ ѧܧѧ XVII . ѧߧ "اէ֧ߧڧ ڧܧѧ ާѧ֧ӧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧, ֧֧էѧӧѧ֧ާԧ ܧݧѧߧ " ( ٧ ѧߧ ѧۧ٧ ԧ ѧߧݧ ا ѧ ݧߧ) ֧ԧ ܧݧѧߧӧ ߧڧܧѧ, ԧѧ٧է ҧݧ֧ է֧ӧߧڧ, ֧ ߧڧܧ ߧ֧ ڧ ߧ٧ԧ. ѧߧ ҧ էԧ ߧا ڧ ܧݧѧߧ . է ߧ էߧԧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ ܧݧѧߧ ҧѧݧڧ ѧ-٧ ֧ԧ ܧݧѧߧާ ڧܧӧ. ݧ է ڧ֧ݧ ԧ, ߧ ߧ ا֧ߧڧ էݧԧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ֧ѧݧ ֧ԧ ݧާ֧ߧߧ اڧݧڧ, ߧܧ ֧ ҧݧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ާ֧ ֧ԧ ߧѧاէ֧ߧڧ, ֧ԧ ֧ݧ. ާ ܧݧѧߧ - ߧا ӧ֧ڧ ԧѧ ߧ֧ڧӧ֧ݧڧӧԧ էѧ, ܧ ާ֧ݧ ڧݧ ߧ ާ ֧ԧ էݧ֧. ߧڧݧ, ҧ ӧ ֧ اڧӧ ѧ-٧. ٧ا ߧا, ѧߧ ֧ ֧ݧӧ֧, ֧է ܧ ҧ ҧէڧ ߧӧѧ֧ݧ اߧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ اѧ ߧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ ٧ڧ-٧ - ߧ ڧ, ѧӧڧݧڧ ߧ ڧܧ ѧ-٧, ֧٧ݧѧ ܧ ӧ֧ڧݧ էѧ اѧ ѧߧߧ, ֧ӧѧӧ֧ԧ ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧݧ ҧ֧ާ֧ڧ ѧܧا ӧݧѧէ֧ӧ֧ԧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ߧ֧ԧ ߧ ߧѧѧݧ ҧѧ, ܧѧاէ ԧ էߧڧާѧ ߧ֧ާ ԧ. ݧ֧է֧ ߧڧ, ާ ѧӧݧ֧ ߧ ާڧݧԧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ڧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէ ѧ-٧ اѧ ѧߧߧ, ާѧݧ ܧ֧ ڧ٧ߧѧӧѧ֧ާ, ݧڧ ѧ֧ާ ݧ֧էڧ ڧާ֧ߧ ѧߧӧ֧ߧߧ-ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ݧڧߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧ٧ݧا֧ߧڧ ߧߧڧܧ "ߧ ߧܧ" ܧߧ֧ڧ ѧާ ާڧݧԧڧ٧ѧڧ ԧ ڧݧ ڧߧԧ ֧ߧѧا ֧ ߧ ӧݧ֧ ڧڧߧ էݧ ڧѧߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ڧ. ߧ֧֧ߧ, ߧ֧ܧ֧ԧ ٧ ӧ֧ѧݧ ԧѧ էѧߧѧߧ ӧݧ է էڧߧѧڧ ڧ, ߧ, ܧѧ ӧߧڧݧ, ҧ ا էԧ ֧ݧӧ֧, ߧ ا էѧ , ѧܧا اڧӧڧ ֧ݧߧڧ֧ӧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧӧڧۧ ѧݧڧާڧ֧.

  ѧ, ܧ֧ ا ҧ اѧ ѧߧ ܧѧܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ֧ԧ ݧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ֧ާ ߧ , ާߧԧڧ ڧߧڧܧ ڧ اѧ ѧߧߧ ܧѧ ާѧ֧ , ֧ԧ ڧާ ܧѧ ӧݧߧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧԧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ܧߧ էڧߧѧڧ ѧߧ (1280-1367) - ߧѧѧݧ ڧ (1368-1644) ާاߧ ߧѧۧ էڧߧѧڧۧߧ ާ֧ߧ ߧڧܧѧ. ާݧէ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ӧܧڧ ڧߧӧߧڧ ڧާ֧ էߧ ڧ ӧڧ ֧ߧ ֧֧ߧ֧ ٧ڧߧ . ѧ֧ ߧ ߧ֧ԧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ڧݧߧ ӧݧڧߧڧ էѧܧڧ ѧݧڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ѧܧѧ "ѧ -٧" էԧڧ. ֧ڧ ѧӧڧ ݧاҧ ӧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ֧ҧ ѧާӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧߧڧ, է֧ݧѧ ݧ ާ֧ էڧ֧ݧ֧, ڧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ֧ݧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ѧ. էӧާ ܧѧާ اѧ ѧߧ ֧֧ӧӧѧ ӧ֧ާ ڧѧ ڧܧѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ܧ ߧ էڧ ԧ ѧѧߧ ӧڧߧڧ ߧ. ާ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ է֧ߧԧ ߧ֧ԧ ܧߧڧݧڧ, ܧ ާ֧ݧ, ѧ ҧ ѧߧڧ. ѧ, ѧ ֧ާ ӧ֧ڧݧ "ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ֧ݧӧ֧", էѧ ٧ӧڧ "ԧߧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧ" ( ) (էݧڧߧߧ ڧާ ԧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ߧѧڧѧӧ֧ԧ ֧ݧ ܧߧڧ - ٧ ). ڧӧ֧ ֧ԧ ֧ҧ ܧڧ, ߧѧڧ ߧѧѧݧ ާ֧էѧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧էӧ, ا էѧܧڧ ާ֧էѧ ѧާӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧߧڧ. ާڧާ ԧ اѧ ѧߧ ѧܧا ߧѧѧ ڧ٧ѧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ܧާ ٧ ߧ ߧѧڧ ֧ԧ ڧ֧ݧ ߧ ߧѧߧ (էԧ ڧާ ߧ ѧߧ, ѧܧا ֧ߧ ڧާ ߧ ڧ (ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧާԧ ڧާ֧ѧ). ҧݧ ا ѧާ ڧܧӧ, ܧާ ҧѧ ѧߧڧ. اѧ ѧߧ ߧ ݧܧ ֧ܧѧߧ ӧڧ ڧ֧ާ, ߧ ҧԧѧڧ ֧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ ߧ. 67 ݧ֧ ܧڧߧ ٧ ߧ, 70 ݧ֧ ֧ݧڧݧ ԧѧ էѧߧѧߧ. ѧܧ ӧ٧ѧ ҧߧާ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ҧݧ ѧߧ էߧާ ֧֧ӧӧѧ - ֧ߧ ާߧԧ ѧ٧ӧ֧ݧ ݧڧڧ ݧէ֧, ڧ٧ڧ֧ܧ ڧݧߧ "ӧߧާ" ܧѧާ. էߧѧܧ, ֧ާ ԧݧѧӧߧާ ڧߧڧѧާ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ" ڧܧӧ اѧ ѧߧߧ ӧݧݧڧ - 1) "ߧ֧էӧڧاߧ ܧߧݧڧӧѧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ" ( ٧ڧ ا է ), 2) "ާԧܧ ֧էݧ֧ӧѧ ا֧ܧ" ( ا ܧ ԧѧ ), 3) "ާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ ҧ֧اէѧ ܧ" ( ާѧߧ ܧѧ ) 4) " էڧߧܧ ҧߧ ݧ" ( ԧ ا ). ݧ ߧ ѧҧѧ֧ ҧ էڧ ڧ ڧ ֧֧ ڧߧڧ, ا ߧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ߧ ڧܧӧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ" ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ֧, ѧӧߧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧ ا֧ܧڧ "ӧߧ֧ߧڧ" ڧܧӧ, ٧է֧ ӧ ߧѧҧ.

  ާ֧ߧߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ҧݧ ٧ا ٧ѧڧܧڧӧѧߧ ѧާ ߧѧѧݧ ڧߧܧ ( ֧ ӧ֧ާ, ܧԧէ ߧ ѧߧڧ էݧا֧ ҧ ݧܧ ڧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ

ѧ֧ ߧ ѧ

  ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ) ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧާ اѧ ѧߧߧ اߧާ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ - ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧ ѧ ٧ߧ ާѧ֧ ѧ ѧۧ٧, ܧ ڧѧ: "ڧ էڧا֧ߧڧ "ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ" ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧ [ާߧѧ] ѧݧڧߧ. اѧ ѧߧ ڧ ֧ԧ ѧݧڧߧ, ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ݧ֧էӧѧ [֧ԧ ڧߧڧѧ] ֧֧ӧ֧ߧ ڧ ߧѧҧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ" ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ֧. ѧߧ ҧ ߧ֧ާߧԧڧ ڧ ߧ֧ԧ ӧݧѧէ֧ ا ާاߧ ҧ֧էڧ ѧݧڧߧ" (37, .27-29). ާڧާ ڧ ҧߧڧ֧ݧߧԧ ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ, ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧާ֧ էݧ اѧ ѧߧߧ ֧ էԧ ֧ߧߧ: ڧܧӧ ֧ܧѧߧ ӧѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧݧ ߧܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ݧ էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ߧڧ ާ֧էڧѧڧߧߧԧ ٧ѧҧ, էҧߧ ߧڧ ѧߧѧҧڧ٧ اڧӧߧ, ܧ ҧݧ ߧ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧ ڧ֧ߧڧܧ էѧ.

  اѧ ѧߧ ҧ ߧ ѧܧ ߧ֧ݧէڧާ, ܧѧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ѧ ٧ (ܧ ӧҧ ߧ ݧҧڧ ѧ٧ԧӧѧڧӧѧ ݧէާ), ާ ֧ߧڧܧ ߧ֧ԧ ҧݧ ާߧԧ, ҧ֧ߧߧ ֧է էѧ, էݧ ܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ӧݧݧ էߧڧ ڧ ֧է էڧا֧ߧڧ ڧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ֧ݧ - ҧ֧ާ֧ڧ ֧֧ ڧڧ٧ڧ֧ܧ ֧ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ.
   اѧ ѧߧߧ ߧѧѧݧ ߧ֧ܧڧ ߧӧ ѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ҧѧ٧ӧѧݧڧ էӧ ֧ԧ ߧӧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ - ֧ӧ֧ߧ اߧ. ֧ӧ֧ߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧ ӧ٧ӧѧ ڧާ֧ߧѧާ ѧ ٧ߧ ٧ , اߧ - ֧ݧ է ڧާ֧, ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧާ ڧ ܧ ӧݧ ߧ ا, اѧ ߧ, ٧ڧߧѧߧ, ا ߧѧߧ, ѧߧ ߧѧߧ, ѧ اߧߧѧߧ, ѧ ѧۧ٧.

  اѧ ѧߧ ӧ֧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ا ާڧߧѧӧڧާ "ڧߧѧէѧ ٧ڧڧߧߧ ߧӧѧ" ( ڧѧߧ ), ܧ ӧާ ӧڧէѧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ڧݧ- ٧ڧߧ ( ҧ ) ҧѧ է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ( ҧ ); ڧ ߧ֧֧ߧڧ ߧӧѧߧ ڧߧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާߧ֧ߧڧ ӧާ ڧԧѧާ ֧ӧݧ֧ާ֧ߧ. ֧ާ ߧ , اѧ ѧߧ էݧاѧ ѧէڧڧ ѧܧ ݧ֧է ާѧ֧, ܧѧ ڧߧ, ѧߧڧ, , , ڧާ֧ߧߧ ֧ާ ڧڧӧѧ ٧էѧߧڧ ԧ ݧߧԧ ߧѧҧ ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ ܧݧѧߧ , ܧ ڧӧ ܧާݧ֧ܧѧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ.

  اߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧݧ ӧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ӧڧߧڧ ا٧, ԧѧߧڧѧ֧ ӧڧߧڧ֧ ߧ. ҧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧӧڧݧ ٧է֧ ֧٧էߧ ֧ߧ ڧߧҧ, ѧݧا֧ߧߧ ߧ֧էѧݧ֧ܧ ҧ֧֧ا ӧߧ-ܧڧѧۧܧԧ ާ. ާڧߧܧ է ѧ ڧ֧٧اѧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ݧܧӧէ֧ ާѧ֧ ҧ֧ӧ ڧܧ ٧ڧԧѧ. ާ֧ߧߧ է էݧ ҧҧ ѧڧӧڧާڧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧѧާ ߧܧڧ ڧѧ ڧݧѧݧڧ ӧۧܧ ާڧӧѧݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ. ڧߧܧܧڧ ѧ ӧۧ ӧէڧݧ ѧݧڧߧܧڧ ާߧѧ. ٧ӧ֧ߧ, ٧ڧԧѧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ҧѧѧݧ ٧ ާ ӧ֧ӧߧ ߧѧѧӧߧڧܧѧ ѧݧڧߧܧԧ ާߧѧ ݧڧ էҧ֧ߧڧ. ֧ܧݧܧڧ ާߧѧѧ, ڧѧӧڧ ֧ҧ ߧ֧֧ӧ٧ۧէ֧ߧߧާ ҧۧѧާ, էӧ֧ݧ اѧ ٧ ڧѧ ߧ ֧ҧ "ҧݧڧاߧڧ ҧ "ާԧܧԧ" اѧߧ" ( ާߧ اѧ էѧߧ է ), ԧ ѧާԧ اѧ ߧ, ܧާ ԧէ ا ҧݧ ٧ 70 ݧ֧ ܧ ߧѧѧݧ ڧ ݧڧ ӧ ާѧ֧ӧ ݧڧߧڧ اѧ ѧߧߧ.

   "ާԧܧ" ާѧ֧ӧ ӧڧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧ֧ ѧ ݧܧӧէ֧ ٧ڧԧѧ ӧ֧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ "ӧ ܧߧڧԧ ѧߧߧѧݧ ٧ѧڧ֧" (٧ ڧߧ ). ֧ӧէӧ "ާԧܧԧ" ڧܧӧ ߧѧ "ا֧ܧڧ" ڧѧݧ , ܧԧէ ڧѧڧۧ ߧާ ٧էѧ֧ݧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ߧ ѧߧڧ, ܧߧ֧ܧڧӧѧӧڧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ է ٧ڧԧѧߧ, ֧ ߧ էڧݧ. اѧ ߧ, ܧѧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ ڧߧڧܧ, ҧ ӧߧ֧ߧ ֧ߧ ݧ, ߧڧܧ ߧѧѧݧ ߧ ާ ӧ֧ڧ ֧ԧ ާѧ֧ӧ "ާѧݧ ڧݧ ҧ֧اէѧ ҧݧ", ڧާ֧ߧߧ ӧݧ֧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ܧӧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ" ( ߧ ٧ ), ڧէ֧ اѧ ߧ էڧ ֧֧ ֧ܧ ڧܧڧ֧ާ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧԧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ڧ֧ݧ֧ ֧ߧڧܧ. ߧѧէڧ ߧ ߧѧէԧҧߧ ֧ݧݧ ާ֧֧ԧ ߧѧѧݧ ާѧߧاܧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧ (1644-1911) ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧԧ ާѧ֧ ѧ اߧߧѧߧ (ܧѧ, ѧܧا ݧڧѧӧ֧ԧ էҧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ݧѧҧ), է֧ݧѧߧߧ ߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧ ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ѧ ٧ߧ, ѧܧا ا ڧާ֧֧ ާ֧ ֧ܧ ާݧڧӧѧߧߧ ڧӧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ" էѧߧܧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ اѧ ѧߧߧ "ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ" - ѧݧڧߧܧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ڧܧӧ ԧ ާѧ֧ ߧߧ ާڧߧѧ֧ ӧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ҧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧ "֧է ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ" ( ٧ ѧߧ ), ѧ ѧۧ٧, ֧էڧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧڧ ѧ اߧߧѧߧ, اѧݧ֧ߧڧ, ߧ ֧֧էѧӧڧ ݧ֧ߧߧԧ ާѧ֧ӧ էԧڧ ڧ-٧ ԧ, , ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ӧܧڧ ڧߧӧߧڧ , ӧ ڧݧ էѧӧѧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ݧاҧ. ݧ ߧ֧ԧ اߧѧ ӧ֧ӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ֧֧ߧߧ ݧ ߧ ߧ֧, ѧݧڧ ݧܧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧ ֧ڧѧڧӧ ڧ٧ݧا֧ߧڧ֧ ڧߧڧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ" ܧݧѧߧԧ ڧܧӧ, ܧ ݧߧ ӧѧէѧ ڧߧڧѧާ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. էڧ ڧ ݧ֧էߧڧ ܧڧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ӧ֧ӧ ѧߧ ߧ, ֧֧ҧѧӧڧ ߧ ֧ӧ֧, ҧѧ ӧ֧ާ ڧܧӧ ѧܧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ܧѧ ٧ , ֧ ܧ ۧէ֧ ߧڧا.

   ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ӧ֧ӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ է֧ݧ ҧݧ ҧݧѧԧݧߧ֧. ҧߧ ާڧߧѧߧڧ ӧէѧڧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ӧ֧ӧ ֧ӧ ӧݧӧѧ֧ ڧާ ߧ֧ܧԧ ѧ ٧ߧ (ҧݧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧԧ ٧ӧڧ ٧ߧ, ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ߧѧѧݧ ڧߧܧ ڧ ҧӧ֧ ݧڧ ڧѧ - ԧէ ڧѧߧ.

ѧ֧ ߧѧߧ

   ߧ֧ ҧѧ֧ ߧѧ "֧ߧӧڧ ڧڧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧ" (ڧ ԧѧ). էߧѧܧ ڧߧڧܧ ߧڧ ֧ԧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ا ߧܧ ާڧߧܧ ѧ, ֧ԧ էѧا ߧѧ٧ӧѧ ڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧڧѧ اߧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ اѧ ߧ ߧ اߧ.
ߧԧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ ݧѧԧѧ, ѧ ٧ ѧ ٧ߧ - էӧ ѧ٧ߧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ߧ ֧ էߧ ӧ֧ӧ, ڧҧ էߧާ ާ ا ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ߧ֧ӧ٧ާاߧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ҧ ֧ߧڧܧ ֧ߧڧܧ (ڧݧ ѧާԧ اѧ ѧߧߧ) ߧѧѧݧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧݧ ڧ ڧ֧ݧ֧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧԧ ٧ - ާѧ֧ ߧѧѧݧ ڧ, ֧֧էѧӧ֧ԧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ. ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ѧ٧ߧ ާ֧ߧ ڧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ. ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧֧ ֧ݧӧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧ ѧ ٧ߧ, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ѧӧڧ ݧ ֧ҧ ֧ݧ ҧѧߧڧ "ڧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ" (ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ), ѧӧ֧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ.

   էߧ ڧ ߧڧ, "اէ֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ" (ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ݧߧ), ѧէڧڧ ߧڧ ѧާާ اѧ ѧߧߧ. ӧܧ ݧѧ, ӧ ӧѧڧѧߧ ѧܧѧ, ѧߧڧӧ֧ԧ ѧ٧ߧ ֧ާ, ڧާ֧ ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ "ڧ٧ߧѧѧݧߧ ܧާާ֧ߧѧڧ" ( ѧߧ ا ), ܧ ԧӧڧ , ѧܧѧ ߧѧڧѧ اѧ ѧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧѧݧܧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ, ߧڧܧ ڧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ާ էҧѧӧڧ ߧ֧ԧ ߧ ڧ֧ԧݧڧ (52, .28). ҧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ֧է ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ "ߧ ߧܧԧ" ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧѧ ݧڧݧ ڧߧܧ , ݧ ԧ, ܧѧ ߧ֧ܧ ٧ڧ ҧߧѧاڧ ڧ ݧߧ ҧѧߧڧ ݧߧ ݧѧӧܧ, ڧ֧ ا "ڧ٧ߧѧѧݧߧ ܧާާ֧ߧѧڧ֧".

   ѧ ٧ߧ ҧ ֧ߧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧ, ֧ߧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ڧܧѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ݧҧڧ ֧֧ӧӧѧ ާ֧ѧ ҧڧѧߧڧ ӧ ާէ֧. էߧѧاէ, ֧ڧ էѧܧ "ݧ ܧާڧߧ" ҧݧڧ ԧէ ѧ٧, ԧէ, ҧ֧ߧڧ ާڧߧܧ էڧߧѧڧۧߧ ߧڧܧ, էߧ ӧ֧ާ اڧ اѧ ѧߧ, ٧ߧѧܧާڧݧ էѧ, ܧѧ٧ѧӧڧާ ֧ߧڧܧ اѧ ѧߧߧ. ߧ֧ԧ ѧ ٧ߧ ݧڧ էݧڧߧߧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ߧ֧ܧ ڧߧڧܧѧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ էѧا ڧާ ԧ էѧ - ߧ (9, .10).

   ܧѧѧ֧ ާѧ֧ ٧ , ٧է֧ ا ާߧԧ ߧ ߧ. ԧ ѧܧا ѧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ߧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧ, ѧ ڧ. էߧѧܧ ӧ է ߧ , ҧ ֧ߧڧܧ ѧ ٧ߧ. ٧ , ܧѧ ѧ ٧ߧ, اڧ ԧէ ڧѧߧ, ԧէ ڧާ֧ ާ֧ݧܧ ֧էڧڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ է , ֧ߧ ݧߧԧ ڧѧ ڧ֧ӧԧ էܧ ҧ ߧڧ֧ݧߧ ٧ѧاڧߧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ. ܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ֧֧ߧڧ է֧ ݧ֧ ڧԧѧ ѧ ٧ߧ, ާ ا ڧܧӧ ֧ԧ ҧѧ ѧߧ ߧ - ݧ֧էߧڧ ڧ ߧڧ֧ݧ֧ ާѧ֧ӧ اߧ ӧ֧ӧ.

   ѧ ާѧ֧, ٧ ֧֧էѧ ӧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ اڧ֧ݧ ֧ݧܧ اѧҧѧ ֧٧է ߧߧ ӧڧߧڧ ߧѧߧ, ԧէ ߧ ا֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ ݧ֧ڧ ߧ ڧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧էѧӧѧݧ ( ߧѧ ӧ֧ާ ѧ ӧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ). ٧ ݧ ڧ֧ݧߧ ߧ ܧߧ ܧѧاէԧ ԧէ ӧ٧ӧѧѧݧ ӧ է֧֧ӧߧ ӧڧߧڧ ߧѧߧ ߧѧӧ֧ڧ ֧ѧ֧ݧ ާѧ. էߧѧاէ, է ֧֧ է֧֧ӧߧ ߧ٧ԧ, ӧڧէ֧, ܧѧ ާԧڧ ݧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ѧߧڧ ҧѧ֧ ӧڧ էӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ܧݧѧߧާ ڧܧӧ "ӧ٧ӧߧ էѧ" ( ѧ ) ѧݧڧߧܧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ԧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ҧݧ ا֧ݧ, ߧڧ ߧ֧ӧݧڧӧ, ӧڧ اѧߧ ӧڧ֧, ߧ էѧ ѧڧ ѧ ާߧԧ ڧ, ٧ ҧ֧٧٧ӧߧ ާݧߧݧ, ߧ, ӧӧӧѧ, ߧ ӧ֧ ڧݧڧߧ, ֧ ӧ֧ էԧ. ާݧܧ ߧ ѧݧѧ ߧ ٧ѧާ֧֧ߧߧ - ߧ ѧߧڧ ҧڧݧ ӧէԧߧܧ, ҧ ڧ ߧѧԧݧ֧.

  ԧէ, ݧ֧֧ ߧ֧ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ڧݧ ߧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ާ֧, ߧ ѧߧڧ ާ էߧ ߧ, ڧ٧ݧ, ѧ ԧӧѧڧӧѧ ٧ ѧ ֧ԧ ڧ֧ݧ֧. ٧ , ӧڧէ֧ ֧ԧ ڧܧ֧ߧߧ, ԧݧѧڧݧ, ߧ ݧӧڧ֧, ާ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ܧѧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ ߧѧ٧ѧ, ߧ ѧߧڧ ҧէ֧ ֧ا֧էߧ֧ӧߧ ѧ էҧڧѧ ٧֧ާݧ ܧڧէӧѧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ ѧާ ާ֧ݧܧڧ ܧѧާ֧ܧ, ӧ֧֧ѧ ҧӧѧ է֧֧ӧ֧ ѧާ ߧܧڧ ӧ֧ܧ. ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ٧ ߧ, ֧ߧڧ ѧѧ֧ݧߧ ӧݧߧ ֧ԧ, ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ҧ, ߧ֧ݧ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ - ڧ֧էѧߧڧ ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ߧԧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ֧֧ѧݧ ҧ "է֧֧ӧߧߧާ", ߧڧ ߧ֧ܧݧا֧. ٧ اڧ էާ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ܧ ߧ ߧѧڧ ֧ԧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ӧݧ֧ߧڧ اѧܧ ӧڧ "ާԧܧڧ" ڧܧӧ ӧ٧ӧѧݧ ߧ֧էӧݧӧ ֧է ܧݧѧߧ ߧ, ܧڧӧ֧ާ ا ߧ "ߧ ӧ" ѧէڧڧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ҧݧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ էѧا ٧ѧ֧֧ߧ ֧էѧӧѧ ѧ . էߧѧܧ ݧѧӧڧݧ ߧ ѧߧڧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ܧѧ ڧ֧ݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ܧԧ ާߧԧڧ ԧէ ڧ٧ѧ ڧܧӧ ѧߧ - էڧ ڧ ӧ֧ݧڧѧۧڧ ާѧ֧ ڧѧ, ѧӧ ߧڧӧڧ ٧ӧڧ ", ߧ ڧާ֧ڧ ڧӧߧڧܧ". ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ӧڧӧ֧ާ էӧ ڧާ֧ѧڧ ӧ ӧ ݧӧڧߧ է֧ӧߧѧէѧԧ ӧ֧ܧ, էӧ֧ߧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ҧݧ.

   էѧߧߧ ӧ֧ڧ, ӧӧ ߧ ڧ ҧ֧էߧ ֧ާ, ѧߧ ӧާ֧ ӧڧ էߧ֧ݧѧߧڧߧ ڧ ֧٧է ߧߧߧߧ

ѧ֧ ߧ ѧܧ

   ܧ֧, "ѧ ߧ ֧ҧ ާ֧ܧ ӧڧ٧ڧ֧ ֧֧ҧ", ڧݧ ѧݧߧާ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ էݧ ԧ, ҧ ڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ӧ֧ާ ҧݧ ا ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ֧ݧ֧ҧߧ ӧۧӧѧ ԧ ڧܧӧ, ҧ ߧ ҧݧ ֧֧٧ߧ ҧݧߧ - ѧߧ ѧէѧ ܧݧ֧ާ ҧߧ ݧ, ܧ - ҧ֧ܧݧ֧٧. էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ߧ ѧߧڧ ڧ ֧ էӧ ӧڧ ߧӧ֧ ߧ ٧ڧڧߧ ߧ ߧڧߧ, ߧ ݧܧ ѧߧ էѧݧ ڧ ӧ ߧܧ ֧ܧ֧ ާѧ֧ӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ܧߧڧ ҧ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧاէѧ ܧ֧֧ܧڧ ܧѧѧӧѧߧ, ٧ѧ֧ ҧ ڧԧݧѧ֧ ӧڧߧڧ ѧߧ ֧էѧӧѧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ էߧ ڧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ܧ. ҧ֧ߧڧ է֧ݧѧ ҧݧ ߧ ѧݧڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ѧ֧ܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, ܧ ҧӧӧѧݧ "ӧܧѧާݧڧӧѧߧڧ اڧ٧ߧ" ҧ֧֧ߧڧ էݧԧݧ֧ڧ, ֧ԧ էѧا ٧ӧѧݧ " - ٧ݧѧ ڧݧݧ" (٧ڧߧէѧߧ -٧).

   ҧݧ ߧڧ էѧݧߧ֧֧ۧ, ߧڧܧѧܧ ڧߧާѧڧ ߧ ѧߧڧݧ. ѧߧ ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ߧڧ էߧ ֧٧ ا ߧѧѧ ֧էѧӧѧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ݧ٧ӧѧݧ ҧݧڧ ֧. ֧է ֧, ܧ ֧ ߧ֧ԧ ڧ, ҧ ݧ ߧ ڧާ֧ߧ ۧ, ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ էߧԧ ڧ ѧާ ާԧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧٧է ߧߧߧߧ ܧݧѧߧ.

  ԧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ҧѧ֧ ڧާ֧ݧ ֧ߧ ֧֧ߧ ٧ڧߧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧݧ ӧܧڧ ڧߧӧߧڧ ѧ٧ߧ ҧݧѧ ڧѧ. ֧ާ ٧ ڧѧڧ ҧ֧ӧ ڧܧӧѧ ٧ӧѧݧ "֧ާ֧ۧӧ " ( ڧ٧ ). ۧ ѧߧ ѧݧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ , ߧ ݧܧ ֧ߧڧӧ ߧ ҧݧ. ѧߧ ާߧ֧ӧѧݧ ֧ԧ ҧߧ, ާ ا ֧ާ ߧ ߧѧӧڧݧ ٧ѧߧڧӧ ѧާߧѧէ֧ߧߧ ѧѧܧ֧ ԧ ֧ߧ ӧݧڧ֧ݧߧԧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ. ڧ ӧ֧ާ ߧ ѧߧ ҧѧ ֧ԧ, ֧ ҧݧ֧, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ۧ էѧӧѧ ѧߧ ܧ ҧ֧ҧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧߧ ֧էާ֧ѧ, ߧ ާ ا ҧݧ ߧ ѧէ. ۧ ߧ էҧڧݧ ܧѧܧڧ ݧڧҧ ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ ֧ڧ, ڧڧߧ ާ - ܧߧ ֧էӧ٧ ߧ֧ާ ѧߧ ֧ԧ ߧ. ѧާ է֧ݧ, ܧѧ ڧѧݧ ߧ, ֧ާ էݧԧ ӧ֧ާ ߧ էѧӧѧݧ ѧӧڧݧߧ ѧݧѧҧڧ. ۧ ѧӧڧݧ ֧٧ ߧߧ, ԧݧѧӧ ܧԧ ҧ ֧ԧ ѧڧ ҧѧ ߧڧ , ݧڧ ߧ֧ԧ ֧ܧާ֧ߧէѧ֧ݧߧ ڧާ, ֧ѧ է֧֧ӧߧ ߧ٧ԧ ڧ֧ݧ ѧߧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ, ܧާ ا ڧݧߧڧݧ 82 ԧէ. ߧ ѧߧڧ ߧ ѧ ڧ ۧߧ, ѧ ܧѧ ҧݧ է֧֧ӧߧ ߧڧܧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ߧ ֧էѧӧѧ, ֧ާ ڧݧ ֧ѧ ֧ݧ اѧҧѧاߧ, ԧէ ѧܧا ڧާ֧ݧڧ ֧ߧڧܧ ٧ . ާ ԧ, է ֧֧ҧѧݧ ݧ ا֧ߧڧҧ էӧ֧ߧߧڧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ߧ ڧߧڧ, ܧԧ էߧ ӧ֧ާ ҧѧ ӧ֧ާ ڧܧӧ. ۧ ڧݧ ߧ ڧߧڧߧ էڧ ާ֧ ӧ֧ߧݧ էާ, ҧӧڧ ӧ֧, ݧߧ ڧ ֧ܧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ. ӧ ڧܧӧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ֧֧էѧ ݧ֧ާߧߧڧܧ , ѧ ۧاߧ (էԧ ڧާ ѧ ), ѧ ۧاߧ ӧ֧ާ ߧ ѧ ا (1877 - 1935) ѧܧا ާѧ֧ ҧѧԧѧاѧ ڧߧ ߧ ѧߧ, ܧ ٧էѧ ߧ ҧѧ٧ ӧڧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ڧݧ ߧ. ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ڧܧӧ ۧߧ ѧݧ ڧާ֧ߧӧѧ ڧݧ֧ .

   ߧ ڧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާߧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧ ۧߧ ߧ ٧ѧܧߧڧݧѧ.

ѧ֧ ٧

   اߧ ٧ѧѧӧ ֧٧է ҧ ҧէէڧۧܧڧ ѧ, էߧڧ ڧ ާߧѧ ܧԧ ۧ ӧڧ ߧ֧ڧާڧڧާ ݧڧߧ ӧѧاէ, էߧѧܧ ߧ ֧ѧݧ ܧ ӧڧ ڧ, ѧ ܧѧ ԧ٧ߧ ާߧѧ ӧ֧֧ߧӧ ӧݧѧէ֧ ѧݧڧߧܧڧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ. ԧէ ۧ ӧڧӧѧ ҧ ާߧѧ ѧߧ֧, ܧԧ ާߧѧ ѧѧܧӧѧ ӧ֧ ӧڧ֧. ѧߧ ܧߧѧѧܧӧѧ էѧ " ҧѧߧݧѧߧ " ԧէ - ֧٧ݧѧ ާߧѧ ݧڧ ا֧ݧ ѧӧާ ӧܧ ާ֧. է֧, էէ֧اڧӧѧӧڧ ӧ٧ ާߧѧ, ҧݧ ֧ߧ ާߧԧ, ӧ ߧ ӧާ֧ էԧڧާ ާߧѧѧާ ڧ ާߧѧ ֧ҧӧѧݧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧߧ է֧ҧߧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ. ѧߧ ҧ ֧ߧ ӧѧاѧ֧ާ ֧ݧӧ֧ է֧ݧ ڧҧ֧ݧ ҧݧ ֧٧ߧѧߧ ҧ֧ӧ.

   ۧ, ҧ ߧ "֧ ݧڧ", ֧֧ӧ֧ ѧߧ էӧ ֧ԧ ߧӧ֧ ݧڧ, ԧէ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ӧ֧էާӧ ߧѧܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ݧاڧ էڧ ڧ ֧ԧ ѧڧ ҧѧ֧ ڧ; ڧާ֧ߧߧ ӧڧ ݧاڧӧ֧ ѧާڧݧڧ اѧ ӧ٧ݧ ݧѧէڧ է֧ݧ. ۧ ا ٧ѧէ֧ۧӧӧѧ ӧ ӧ٧ ֧٧է. ݧѧէڧ ҧѧ ԧէڧߧ اѧߧ ڧާ֧ߧ ߧ ҧ ާ֧ѧ ߧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ ѧߧ ҧ ڧԧݧѧ֧ ߧڧ ֧ާ ܧѧ֧ӧ ڧ֧ݧ. ֧ާ اѧߧ ҧݧ ܧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ѧۧߧ ֧ܧڧߧ ӧѧߧ, ԧէ ݧ٧ӧѧݧѧ էҧ ݧѧӧ ާ֧֧ߧѧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ֧ҧߧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ݧӧ էݧ ҧ֧էߧ.

   ا ѧۧߧ ѧݧѧԧѧݧѧ ݧѧӧܧ ֧ӧ ߧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ "֧ҧ֧ߧ ާ֧" (ߧ ),

ѧ֧ ߧ ٧ߧ

   ֧ا֧էߧ֧ӧߧ ѧӧݧӧѧ ӧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧ էܧڧ ާ ݧ ѧާ ڧާ֧ѧڧ . ݧѧӧߧ ܧݧڧߧѧߧ ާѧ֧ ݧѧӧܧ ѧߧ ӧާ֧ ݧ֧ߧѧާ ֧ާ اѧߧ ڧݧ ѧߧ ܧݧѧߧާ ڧܧӧ, ߧ է֧ݧѧݧ ҧݧڧ ֧. էߧѧاէ, ݧ ԧѧ ߧѧߧ, է اѧߧ ٧ѧ֧ѧ էڧ ڧ ѧާ ܧߧ ӧ֧ݧާ ާѧߧاܧԧ էӧ ܧߧ٧ ٧ѧ , ܧӧէڧ ֧ާ ԧݧѧӧߧާ ܧԧѧާ "٧ߧѧާ֧ߧߧ" ӧۧ, ݧڧѧݧ ܧ ߧѧӧ ާ֧ߧߧ ӧڧߧܧڧ ڧܧӧ. ӧڧէ֧ ߧ֧ҧܧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ާѧ֧ӧ ѧߧ, ٧ѧ ٧ѧ֧, ҧ ڧ֧ݧ ߧѧѧ ֧էѧӧѧߧڧ էӧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧڧ ѧߧӧѧߧ, ԧէ ӧ֧ާ ֧էѧӧѧݧ ѧާ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ާѧ֧ ڧѧ.

  ֧ާ֧ۧӧ اѧߧ ߧ ٧ѧ֧ݧ էѧӧѧ ӧ֧ԧ ڧ֧ݧ, ڧӧ֧ݧ ڧݧߧާ ܧߧݧڧܧ, ܧ ѧ٧ ѧݧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ էӧ. ڧݧ ӧާ֧ѧ ѧާާ ڧߧ-֧ԧ֧ߧ ѧߧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ߧ ڧݧ ݧ֧է֧ާ ֧֧ߧڧ - ݧӧڧߧ ܧѧاէԧ ާ֧ ѧߧ ֧էѧ֧ ѧߧӧѧߧ, ӧ֧ާ ֧ԧ ߧӧ ҧѧ ֧ާ اѧߧ, ѧӧ ݧӧڧߧ ާ֧ ߧѧҧ, ѧߧ ӧ٧ӧѧѧ֧ اѧߧѧ, ߧӧ ֧֧ާ֧ѧ ѧߧӧѧߧ.

   ڧէӧߧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧӧѧݧ ҧ էѧ٧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ "ݧѧԧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧܧӧ" (ߧ٧ڧڧ), ܧӧէڧ ܧ ӧ ا ٧ѧ .

ѧ֧ اڧ

   ާ֧ߧߧ ٧է֧ ҧѧݧڧ ӧ֧ݧ ֧էѧӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧ ӧ֧ݧڧܧڧ ާѧ֧ , ܧѧ ߧӧѧ֧ݧ ڧݧ ҧѧԧѧاѧ ѧۧѧߧ, ܧߧ֧ۧڧ ާѧ֧ ڧݧ ڧߧ ߧߧ, ާѧ֧ ܧѧߧԧ ҧ ֧ާ ( ѧߧ ) ڧ٧ߧ, ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ާѧ֧ ҧҧ ѧۧ٧ ا ѧ, ߧ٧ էԧڧ. ܧ, ݧ ާߧԧڧݧ֧ߧߧ ֧էڧߧܧ, ѧߧ ݧڧ ٧ӧڧ ", ߧ ڧާ֧ڧ ֧ߧڧܧ" ( է ) ҧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ ԧݧѧӧߧ ڧߧܧ ӧ֧ԧ "ݧѧԧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧ".

   էߧѧܧ ާߧԧڧ ߧڧݧ ߧ֧ҧ֧էڧާ ѧߧ ߧ ݧܧ ֧ԧ ߧ֧ߧߧ "ާԧܧ" ֧ߧڧܧ, ܧѧ ߧ֧ܧڧ ֧ާ էߧާ ڧڧ ӧ֧ҧߧ ާ ֧ڧݧ ڧҧӧѧ ֧ԧ ߧӧ֧. ݧ ԧ, ܧѧ ѧڧ ѧߧ է֧ާߧڧӧѧ ֧ߧߧ ҧݧڧܧ ا ӧ ߧ֧ӧ֧ߧ ҧߧ, ާߧ֧ߧڧ ѧݧ ٧ӧڧ "ߧ ڧާ֧ڧ ֧ߧڧܧ" ѧݧ ѧѧߧ ߧ ӧ ֧ާ ѧߧ. ֧ ߧ֧ҧ֧էڧާ ާѧ֧ѧ ҧ ѧѧߧڧݧѧ էѧݧ֧ܧ ٧ ֧է֧ݧѧާ ѧߧӧѧߧ.

  ݧѧէڧ ҧѧ ٧ѧ - ٧ѧ ا ڧ ӧߧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧڧ (ѧߧӧѧߧ ҧݧ ٧ѧѧէߧ) է ԧӧڧ ҧѧ ѧ٧է֧ݧڧ ӧ ݧާ֧ ֧ ߧ ݧѧ, ҧ ѧߧ ֧ԧ ߧӧ ֧էѧӧѧݧ ߧ֧ԧ.

ѧ֧ ا֧ߧէ

   ѧ ѧߧ ߧӧާ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧էѧӧѧݧ ֧ ѧާ ݧڧߧ ާ֧ѧ. ҧ ԧӧѧէ֧ۧܧڧ էѧ٧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧӧѧߧ ڧݧڧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ ٧ߧѧާ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧާ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اߧ: ٧է֧ ҧݧ ާѧߧاܧڧ, ާߧԧݧܧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ѧ. ڧ֧ާ էӧӧ ѧߧ ֧ݧѧߧڧ֧ݧ֧ ڧݧѧ ѧܧާ ا ڧߧڧ. ֧ڧѧݧߧ էԧӧܧ ѧߧ ݧ ڧݧߧ ާѧ֧ - ާѧߧا ڧ ѧߧ, ާߧԧ ѧߧ ܧڧѧ֧ (ѧߧ֧) ا ѧߧߧ.

   ҧݧ ѧߧߧڧܧ, ߧߧ ӧاէѧӧڧ ݧ֧ߧ ڧާ֧ѧܧ ֧ާ ߧ ӧ֧٧էѧ. ԧէ ٧ѧߧڧާѧӧڧ֧ ѧߧ էӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ڧާ֧ѧ ֧ߧڧӧߧ ֧էڧߧܧѧ ѧݧ ѧӧڧӧѧ ڧ ݧӧߧ ܧѧܧӧ ѧڧܧ, էӧ ѧݧ ڧ - ܧ ا ܧԧ ѧߧ֧, ѧߧ ӧ٧ݧ է֧ݧߧ ߧڧާ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ, ҧ֧ѧ, ֧֧ ԧէ ߧڧާ ا ߧڧܧ ߧ ѧӧڧ. ݧ֧էӧڧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ѧݧ ֧ߧڧܧѧާ ѧߧ, էߧѧܧ ݧڧ ѧߧ ާ ֧ѧݧߧ ֧֧էѧ ݧ֧ߧߧ ڧ ާѧ֧ӧ.

   ԧ ٧ߧѧߧ, է ڧߧѧۧܧ ֧ӧݧڧ 1911 ԧէ ѧܧا ݧاڧӧڧ էӧӧ ѧߧ, ڧߧӧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ѧާڧݧߧ ٧ߧѧ , ٧էѧ ߧ ҧѧ٧ ާѧݧѧާݧڧէߧ ҧ֧ӧ ާ ( ٧ ) ֧ާ ڧݧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ.
   ѧݧߧ֧֧ۧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧܧӧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ݧڧݧ ҧݧ ֧֧ ߧӧ֧ ѧߧ ֧ԧ ӧߧܧ ѧ, ߧ, ѧܧا ݧڧߧڧ ڧݧ ާѧ֧ ٧ߧѧߧ, ݧڧߧڧ ڧݧ ާѧ֧ ۧߧ ݧڧߧڧ ڧݧ ߧ ާѧ֧ ߧ ѧߧ, ܧ ԧӧڧݧ ӧ. اѧݧ֧ߧڧ, ѧߧӧߧ ӧ֧ݧڧܧӧ֧ܧڧ ֧ߧڧܧ ѧߧ ߧѧڧݧڧ ѧާ, ߧ֧ܧ էѧا ֧֧էѧݧ ܧݧѧߧ ڧܧӧ ӧڧ է֧, ߧ է֧اѧݧ ܧ ߧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧݧڧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧէڧڧ, ߧ ާԧݧ ߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ߧ ڧݧ ֧ էݧڧߧߧ ߧڧ֧ݧ֧.

   , ܧߧ֧ߧ ا, ӧڧݧ ҧݧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ҧܧӧ ӧ֧ӧ֧, ܧ էѧߧߧ ѧҧ ߧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ԧӧڧ էҧߧ. ѧ٧ ݧ ӧ֧ا֧ߧڧ ާߧѧڧ ܧݧѧߧާ ڧܧӧ ӧҧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ѧߧ ҧ ڧէѧ ѧ ҧ֧ߧѧէߧԧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧԧ էߧڧ, ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ էէ֧اڧӧѧݧ էѧا ѧڧߧ ڧߧѧߧڧӧѧݧ ٧էѧߧڧ ѧ٧ߧԧ է ѧڧѧڧ ҧ֧ . ѧڧҧݧ֧ ӧڧէߧ ާ֧ ߧڧ ѧݧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ާѧ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ѧ, ߧ, ٧ߧѧߧ էԧڧ, ӧߧ֧ڧ ҧݧ ӧܧݧѧ է֧ݧ ݧڧ٧ѧڧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ էѧߧߧԧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ާ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ߧڧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ֧ӧ ܧߧ ӧ֧ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ߧѧߧ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ,

   ѧڧ ܧ ڧߧڧާѧݧ ݧܧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ѧ٧ߧԧ է ҧ֧ "ߧ ߧܧԧ" ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ѧ ܧѧ ڧݧ֧ ߧ ӧ֧ާ ֧ ߧڧܧ ߧ ҧ ٧ߧѧܧ. ߧѧܧާӧ ڧ٧ݧ ݧܧ ڧէѧ ԧէѧ ݧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ 1928 ԧէ ֧ܧڧߧ ߧ ѧܧ - ާѧ֧ ѧ ާܧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ, ާڧӧ֧ԧ ӧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ ߧ ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧ "ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ" ߧѧݧ֧էڧ֧ ѧէ֧է.

   ߧ ѧܧ ܧ ڧ٧ߧѧӧѧ, , ֧էѧ֧, ӧݧ֧ ߧӧ ӧ֧ ѧ֧ ڧߧڧާѧ ѧڧ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ ѧӧ ڧڧѧݧߧԧ ԧݧ. , ڧݧ ߧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ ߧڧܧԧէ ߧ ֧ӧӧѧݧ, ާ ٧ѧӧݧ ߧ ڧߧ, ֧էڧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧݧѧߧ ߧ ԧݧҧܧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ֧ݧӧ֧, ߧѧڧѧӧڧ ѧҧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ, اڧӧڧ ߧڧ֧ էڧߧ֧ӧ է֧֧ӧߧ ߧ٧ԧ.

  ݧ ֧ԧ ާ֧ ѧҧ ҧݧ ڧ٧էѧߧ ԧҧާ ӧѧӧܧѧާ էҧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ܧߧڧԧ "ѧ٧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ" ݧӧ֧ѧߧڧ "ܧݧѧߧ ߧ". , ҧ "֧էѧݧߧާ ֧֧اڧܧѧާ" ѧ ѧ ڧߧ, ٧ѧߧڧާѧӧڧ֧ ڧݧ֧ ߧ, ߧ ԧ֧ҧߧ ӧߧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧӧ ڧѧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ާڧӧ٧٧֧ߧڧ ٧էѧݧ ާ ԧѧԧѧߧէ ѧѧߧڧݧ ҧݧ֧ "ݧԧڧߧ" ӧ֧ڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ѧۧ٧ڧѧߧ ߧ ѧߧڧߧ. , ҧ֧, ֧ ԧӧ ڧ ڧӧߧڧܧ ӧ֧ڧ ѧ ѧ ڧߧ, ҧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧڧӧڧ٧ڧӧѧӧڧ֧ ݧ֧էߧ֧ ӧ֧ާ, ܧԧէ "ܧݧߧѧ ֧ӧݧڧ" ѧݧѧ էѧݧ֧ܧ ڧڧ.

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